Government of the Punjab Policy on Controlling Smog (2017); A Critical Review


  • Khizar Imran Tajammul Harvard University, United States


smog, policy, air quality management, public health, Lahore, Punjab


Lahore, the capital of Punjab, Pakistan, has experienced worsening episodes of smog since the early 2000s. Poor air quality in Lahore reduces the life expectancy of its population by roughly seven years and results in 128,000 premature annual deaths. According to various emissions inventories, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) frequently exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards, more than other air pollutants in the city. In 2017, the Government of the Punjab developed the Policy on Controlling Smog to mitigate the effects of air pollution across Punjab, including Lahore. This paper critically examines the Policy on Controlling Smog. First, it establishes a scientific baseline to describe smog to justify a comparison between Lahore, London, Beijing, and Los Angeles. Second, the paper establishes a positive correlation between poor air quality and negative public health outcomes. Next, the paper gleans lessons from air quality policies developed to overcome smog in the aforementioned cities. Lastly, the paper compares the Policy on Controlling Smog to its counterpart policies in the same cities. The paper argues and concludes that while the Policy on Controlling Smog is a good effort to organize efforts in Punjab, it is not leveraging lessons from other cities nor is it consistent with the latest scientific research on Lahore’s air quality, and therefore, it is ill-equipped to maximise public health outcomes.    

JEL Classification Codes: I18


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Author Biography

Khizar Imran Tajammul, Harvard University, United States




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How to Cite

Imran Tajammul, K. (2024). Government of the Punjab Policy on Controlling Smog (2017); A Critical Review. Journal of Development Policy, Research & Practice, 7(1). Retrieved from