Role of Households’ Wealth and Maternal Education in Early Child Development: A Case Study of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors

  • Hafiz Ghulam Mujaddad University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Wajeeha Ashraf University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Hassan Danish University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.59926/jodprp.vol07/07%20

Keywords:

Early Child Development, Wealth, Maternal Education, Home Stimulating Activities

Abstract

Children under the age of five are exposed to several hazards in developing countries, such as poverty, inadequate housing, and unstimulating home environments, which have an adverse influence on their cognitive and socio-emotional development. Since learning during adulthood is influenced by earlier developmental stages, these formative years are crucial in shaping a successful adult life. Therefore, the study intends to investigate what causes some children to perform worse than other children of the same age. It utilises data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2017-18 of 4,043 children from Punjab, Pakistan. Binary Logistic Regression was used for analysis and it demonstrated a positive relationship between early child development, wealth, maternal education, and home stimulating activities with all three measures of child development which include child identification of alphabets, reading at least four popular words, and recognition of numbers or shapes. The result of the study suggests that it is an urgent need of the hour to focus to women’s education and take steps to mitigate poverty in order to enable parents to provide their children with a better learning environment.

JEL Classification Codes:  I250, H75, P36, J13.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Agüero, J. M., and Ramachandran, M. 2020), ‘The Intergenerational Transmission of Schooling among the Education Rationed’, Journal of Human Resources, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 504-538, <https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.55.2.0816.8143R>.

Bornstein, M. H., Putnick, D. L., Bradley, R. H., Lansford, J. E. and Deater‐Deckard, K. 2015, ‘Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low‐and Middle‐income Countries’, Infancy, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 353-376, <https://doi.org/10.1111/infa.12086>.

Bradley, R. H., Corwyn, R. F., Caldwell, B. M., Whiteside-Mansell, L., Wasserman, G. A. and Mink, I. T. 2000, ‘Measuring the Home Environments of Children in Early Adolescence’, Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 247-288, <https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/SJRA1003_1>.

Bradley, R. H., and Corwyn, R. F. 2002, ‘Socioeconomic Status and Child Development’, Annual Review of Psychology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 371-399.

Bugental, D. B. and Grusec, J. E. 2006, ‘Socialization Processes‘, In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, and R. M. Lerner (eds.), Handbook of Child Psychology: Social, Emotional, and Personality Development,pp. 366–428. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., <https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2006-08776-007>.

Bureau of Statistics Punjab 2018, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Punjab, 2017-18, Survey Findings Report (Vol-I), Lahore, Pakistan: Planning & Development Board, Government of the Punjab, <https://www.unicef.org/pakistan/media/3121/file/Multiple%20Indicator%20Cluster%20Survey%202017-18%20-%20Punjab.pdf>.

Cameron, A. C. and Trivedi, P. K. 2005, Microeconometrics: Methods and Applications, Cambridge University Press.

Carneiro, P., Meghir, C. and Parey, M. 2013, ‘Maternal Education, Home Environments, and the Development of Children and Adolescents’, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 123-160, <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2012.01096.x>.

Citaristi, I. 2022, ‘The Development of International Organizations: A Chronology’, In The Europa Directory of International Organizations 2022 (24th Ed.), Routledge <https://www.routledge.com/The-Europa-Directory-of-International-Organizations-2022/Europa-Publications/p/book/9781032273921>.

Cuartas, J. 2022, ‘The Effect of Maternal Education on Parenting and Early XChildhood Development: An Instrumental Variables Approach’, Journal of Family Psychology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 280-290, <https://doi.org/10.1037/fam0000886>.

Fernald, L. C., Kariger, P., Hidrobo, M., and Gertler, P. J. 2012, ‘Socioeconomic Gradients in Child Development in Very Young Children: Evidence from India, Indonesia, Peru, and Senegal’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 109 (Supplement 2), pp. 17273-17280, .

Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., Strupp, B., and International Child Development Steering Group. (2007). ‘Developmental Potential in the First 5 years for Children in Developing Countries’. The Lancet, vol. 369, no. 9555, pp. 60-70, <https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4>.

Grepin, K. A., & Bharadwaj, P. (2015). ‘Maternal Education and Child Mortality in Zimbabwe’. Journal of Health Economics, vol. 44, pp. 97-117, <https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2015.08.003>.

Guo G, Harris KM. 2000. ‘The Mechanisms Mediating the Effects of Poverty on Children’s Intellectual Development’. Demography, vol. 37 pp. 431–47, <https://doi.org/10.1353/dem.2000.0005>.

Harding, J. F. (2015). ‘Increases in Maternal Education and Low-income Children’s Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes’. Developmental Psychology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 583. <http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038920>.

Heckman, J. J. (2000). ‘Policies to Foster Human Capital’. Research in Economics, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 3-56. <https://doi.org/10.1006/reec.1999.0225>

Heckman, J. J. (2011). ‘The Economics of Inequality: The Value of Early Childhood Education’. American Educator, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 31. < https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ920516.pdf>.

Islam, M. M., Khan, J. R., Kabir, A., Khan, M. Z. R., and Islam, M. M. (2021). ‘Associations of Socio-demographic and Environmental Factors with the Early Development of Young Children in Bangladesh’. International Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 53, pp. 175-196. <https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-021-00287-7>.

Kalil, A., Ryan, R., and Corey, M. (2012). ‘Diverging Destinies: Maternal Education and the Developmental Gradient in time with Children’. Demography, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1361-1383, <https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-012-0129-5>.

Karagiannaki, E. (2017). ‘The Effect of Parental Wealth on Children’s Outcomes in Early Adulthood’. The Journal of Economic Inequality, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 217-243. <https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-017-9350-1>.

Kelley, E. S., and Bueno, R. (2022). ‘Explicit Word Learning in Preschoolers from Families with High or Low Maternal Education’. Communication Disorders Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 246-260. <https://doi.org/10.1177/15257401211043757>.

Kornrich, S., and Furstenberg, F. (2013). ‘Investing in children: Changes in parental spending on children, 1972–2007’. Demography, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1-23, <https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-012-0146-4>.

Lin, T., and Lv, H. (2017). ‘The Effects of Family iIncome on Children’s Education: An Empirical Analysis of CHNS Data'. Research on Modern Higher Education, vol. 4, 2002. < https://www.scirp.org/%28S%28lz5mqp453edsnp55rrgjct55%29%29/reference/referencespapers.aspx?referenceid=3109565>.

Lim, I. E., Mahmud, I., Chowdhury, M. U., Kaiser, A., Bonny, F. A., Akanbonga, S., and Hasan, M. T. (2023). ‘Early Childhood Development (ECD) in Ghana: Assessing the Status and Determinants of the Iteracy–Numeracy, Physical, Social–Emotional, and Learning Domains’. International Journal of Early Childhood, pp. 1-22. <https://doi.org/10.1007/s13158-023-00349-y>.

Magnuson, K. A., Sexton, H. R., Davis-Kean, P. E., and Huston, A. C. (2009). ‘Increases in Maternal Education and Young Children's Language Skills’. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), pp.319-350. <https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.0.0024>.

McCoy, D. C., Zuilkowski, S. S., and Fink, G. (2015). ‘Poverty, Physical Stature, and Cognitive Skills: Mechanisms Underlying Children’s School Enrollment in Zambia’. Developmental Psychology, vol. 51, no.5, pp. 600. < https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7758/rsf.2021.7.3.07>.

Miller, P., Podvysotska, T., Betancur, L., and Votruba-Drzal, E. (2021). ‘Wealth and Child Development: Differences in Associations by Family Income and Developmental Stage’. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 154-174. <https://doi.org/10.7758/RSF.2021 .7.3.07>..

Moulton, V., Goodman, A., Nasim, B., Ploubidis, G. B., and Gambaro, L. (2021). ‘Parental Wealth and Children’s Cognitive Ability, Mental, And Physical Health: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study’. Child Development, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 115-123. <https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13413>.

Neuman, S. B., Kaefer, T., and Pinkham, A. M. (2018). ‘A double dose of disadvantage: Language experiences for low-income children in home and school’. Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 102-118. < https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/edu0000201>.

Niklas, F., Cohrssen, C., and Tayler, C. (2016). ‘Parents supporting learning: A Non-intensive Intervention Supporting Literacy and Numeracy in the Home Learning Environment’. International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 121-142. <https://doi.org/10.1080/09669760.2016.1155147>.

Pem, D. (2015). ‘Factors Affecting Early Childhood Growth and Development: Golden 1000 days’. Advance Practice in Nursing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-4. <https://doi.org/10.4172/2573-0347.1000101>.

Prickett, K. C., and Augustine, J. M. (2016). ‘Maternal Education and Investments in Children's Health’. Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 7-25. <https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12253>.

Raviv, T., Kessenich, M., and Morrison, F. J. (2004). ‘A Mediational Model of the Association Between Socioeconomic Status and Three-Year-Old Language Abilities: The Role of Parenting Factors’. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 528-547.

Rumberger, R. W. (1983). ‘The Influence of Family Background on Education, Earnings, and Wealth’. Social Forces, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 755-773. <https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/61.3.755>.

Singer, P. (2010). Parental Choice and Human Improvement. In Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oxford University Press Oxford University Press.

Skene, K., O’Farrelly, C. M., Byrne, E. M., Kirby, N., Stevens, E. C., and Ramchandani, P. G. (2022). ‘Can Guidance During Play Enhance Children’s Learning and Development in Educational Contexts? A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis’. Child Development, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 1162-1180. < https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13730>.

Martinez, N. T., Xerxa, Y., Law, J., Serdarevic, F., Jansen, P. W., and Tiemeier, H. (2022). ‘Double Advantage of Parental Education for Child Educational Achievement: The Role of Parenting and Child Intelligence’. European Journal of Public Health, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 690-695. <https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckac044>.

Massaro, D. W. (2015). Two different communication genres and implications for vocabulary development and learning to read. Journal of Literacy Research, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 505- 527.

Victora, C. G., Hartwig, F. P., Vidaletti, L. P., Martorell, R., Osmond, C., Richter, L. M., ... and Black, R. E. (2022). ‘Effects Of Early-Life Poverty on Health and Human Capital in Children and Adolescents: Analyses of National Surveys and Birth Cohort Studies in LMICs’. The Lancet, vol 399, no. 10336, pp. 1741-1752, <https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02716-1>.

Walker, D., Greenwood, C. R., Hart, B., and Carta, J. J. (1994). ‘Improving the Prediction of Early School Academic Outcomes using Socioeconomic Status and Early Language Production’. Child Development, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 606-621. <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00771.x>.

Walker, S. P., Wachs, T. D., Grantham-McGregor, S., Black, M. M., Nelson, C. A., Huffman, S. L., and Richter, L. (2011). ‘Inequality in Early Childhood: Risk and Protective Factors for Early Child Development’. The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9799, pp. 1325-1338. <https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60555-2>.

World Bank 2019, Ending Learning Poverty: What Will It Take?, Washington, D.C., <http://hdl.handle.net/10986/32553> [Accessed 30 December 2023].

World Bank n.d. Early Years: The Foundation for Human Capital, Washington, D.C., <https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/earlyyears>.

Zhang X. 2012, ‘The Effects of Parental Education and Family Income on Mother-Child Relationships, Father-Child Relationships, and Family Environments in the People’s Republic of China’.Family Process, vol. 51, no. 4, 483–497, <https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2011.01380.x>.

Published

2024-02-12

How to Cite

Mujaddad , H. G., Ashraf, W., & Danish, M. H. (2024). Role of Households’ Wealth and Maternal Education in Early Child Development: A Case Study of Punjab, Pakistan. Journal of Development Policy, Research & Practice, 7(1), 141–164. https://doi.org/10.59926/jodprp.vol07/07